While undertaking the experiment for chlorophyll and carotenoid determination, this project used UV-vis spectrometer and then ultrasonicated the contents. When comparing with other methodologies from the literature, it was observed that there exist distinct differences between this experiment and other methodologies. For instance, in the experiment conducted by Bertoldi et al. (2019), the methodology contained chemicals and reagents which are similar to the ones used in this project. However, the procedures and techniques of testing were not exactly the same. In the first step, Bertoldi et al. (2019) used sampling techniques to identify 23 samples of goji berries to be used in this experiment. The apparatus and reagents used here were also different since the researchers opted for ultrapure MilliQ water, ultrapure nitric acid, multi-element standard solution VI, mineral solutions with copper, magnesium, aluminium, iron, potassium, and phosphorus. In order to remove impurities from the experiment, all apparatus was washed with a solution of 5% nitric acid before rinsing with ultrapure water (Bertoldi et al. 2019). The researchers also used high performance liquid chromatography detector with a connection of quaternary pump, electrospray ionization (ESI), and online degasser. With the help of the reverse phase C30 column, the researchers were able to accomplish separation of carotenoids. The procedure involved the extraction of 7.0g of ground goji berries and mixing with distilled water to remove polar compounds. Thereafter, a mixture of hexane and acetone in the ratio of 3:2 was used to analyse the composition of carotenoid in the solution.