Complete 9 pages APA formatted article: Criminology theory research paper. In response, the Canadian conservative government has adopted varied measures aimed at addressing this menace. These include increasing longer prison terms as well as establishing more prisons. (Agnew and Cullen 121) As much as this has been helpful in averting crime, its effectiveness has often been questionable. This therefore call the need for the application of classical criminology and strain theory to explain how government agencies can avert the ever increasing rates of crime in the city of Toronto. Classical criminology theory Prior to explaining how government agencies in Toronto can apply classical criminology theory to fight crime, it is important to analyze it major underlying concepts. The classical school of criminology is often associated with Cesare Beccaria (Slocum 1107). It emerged at a time when the naturalistic approach of social contract scholars was challenging the spiritualistic approach that had dominated the thinking of criminal justice policies over a long period (Becker 174). Thus, classical criminology emerged as a protest against spiritual explanations of crime and the criminal policies which they were based. Beccaria protested against a wide range of inconsistencies in the governance as well as public affairs(Slocum 1108). He advocated for various reforms within the criminal justice system to make it more logical and rational(Slocum 1108). He objected the barbaric punishments that were issued at that time. In regard to the contractual society and the need of punishments, Beccaria argued that laws are conditions under which people are united to form a society. It is the law that defends against private usurpations by individuals. He believed that only established laws can decree punishments for crimes. Beccaria believed that the true measure of crime is the harm done to the society. Thus, he expressed acknowledgement of the fact that crimes should not be committed, or should be less frequent in proportion to the harm they case society. For this reason, he contended that obstacles that deter people from engaging in crime should be made stringer in proportion as they are contrary to the public good. According to Beccaria, there must be a proper proportion between crime and punishment(Agnew and Cullen 231). Today, most law enforcement agencies apply this principle through the establishment of law enforcement agencies aimed at punishing criminals. In regard to severity of punishments, Beccaria believed that for punishment to attain it end, the evil it inflicts has to exceed the advantage derivable from the crime (Cornish and Clarke 943). He argued that the more prompt and more closely punishment followed upon the commission of a criminal activity, the more just and useful it well be. According to him, one of the greatest curbs of crime is not the cruelty of punishment but rather the certainty of punishment. Thus, he suggested that laws and executors of laws should be inexorable. Most importantly, Beccaria argued that it is better to prevent crime rather than to punish them(Agnew and Cullen 232). He therefore believed that the ultimate purpose of every good legislation should be to prevent crime. This can be done through making laws clear and simple and that the entire force of a country should be united in the defense of these laws. Therefore, Beccaria believed that laws should be published do that the public may be aware of they are expected to do.