1) Discuss any two methods used in the study of microbial diversity/activity in environmental samples e.g. DGGE, TRFLP, SIP. In your answer include a description of how the methods work, materials/equipment required, the type of results generated, pros and cons of the methods and 1 cite the example of studies that used each method.
2) Discuss the use of 16S attA, the gene for total microbial community structure analysis of environmental samples. In your answer include information on features of the 16S MA gene that makes it useful for such studies and what extra information is provided by using 16S MA over 16S rDNA. Outline what the research of Carl Woes, achieved for the classification of living organisms, using 16S rDNA
3) Write about the creation of transgenic plants. In your answer dis0ss direct DNA transfer methods AND the Agrobacterium-mediated DNA transfer method for insertion of transgenes. Diagrams may be included. Describe how plants can be engineered with resistance to glyphosate and how “Golden Rice” was engineered. Outline the potential benefits and risks associated with transgenic plants.
4) Discuss developments in synthetic biology over the last 20 years. If you answer to define the term synthetic biology and outline applications of synthetic biology in the advancement of medicine and the environment. Include information on the minimum genome concept and the research that was carried out in the creation of a synthetic bacterium. Provide examples of how E. coil has been engineered for a specific application using molecular biology techniques (with citation) and tools such as clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR).