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Energy generation sector
Abdallah and El-Shennawy (2013) explain that in the power generation stations, fossil fuels are burned in order to heat water in boilers and generate steam that drives turbines. As a result, turbines rotate conductors within a magnetic field and generate electricity. Yet, the process releases significant amounts of carbon, sulfur and nitrous oxides, which contribute to the greenhouse effect. Diverse solutions have been advanced over the years, trying to minimize the emission of greenhouse gases through electricity generation activities. One approach, emphasized by Stephens et al. (2015), regards the adoption of smart grid electricity production, which not only reduces greenhouse gas emissions by integrating renewable energy sources but also promotes operational and energy efficient by reducing system and line losses and optimizing network designs. Abdallah and El-Shennawy (2013) echo similar findings, reporting that in the smart electrical grid, renewable and cleaner energy sources can also be adopted in the generation of electricity to minimize greenhouse gas emissions. Three renewable energy sources are identified in this regard: 1) hydropower, which converts kinetic energy from falling water into electricity, 2) wind power which captures kinetic energy in moving wind through blades, and 3) photovoltaic and solar-thermal technologies that capture energy from the sun and release electrons that are converted to electricity. Figure 6 below shows the comparison of electricity generation in both traditional and smart grid electricity generating farms that rely on non-renewable sources.