Islam started during the time of prophet Muhammad in the 7th Century C.E in Mecca and has ever since gained followers all over the world. However, its expansion is coupled with several challenges that could see the intervention of the political authorities. The pre-Islam in Arabian Peninsula believed in polytheism and received opposition from the new belief initiated by Muhammad. The penetration of Islam into new areas took various forms, including struggling others to accept the new religion. This was called the Jihad period because it involved both internal and external wars to defend and spread their faith. Jihad took over Muhammad after his death and was one of the four caliphs. Under Jihad, the Muslim soldiers would navigate through empires spreading the Dar-al-Islam without forcing people to convert. They were backed by Turkish soldiers, enabling them to cover a vast geographical region. Umayyads succeeded Ali after his assignation and spread the Islamic faith beyond Arabic to Spain. Later, Abbasids took over, and many people converted due to the message spread, hence establishing reliable western Afro-Eurasia power. However, the caliphates concentrated on political, economic, and military forces; thus, the need to balance between the authorities and region was reinstated with the introduction of sharia law governing them how to conduct themselves.