The consensus seems to be that employee engagement involves expressing yourself through work and other employee role activities. Kahn’s definition of participation can be seen as this kind of conceptualization, that is, “using the members of the organization to perform their own work.” In communication, people will use and express physically, cognitively and emotionally during role-playing. “(1990, p. 694). The second structure related to participation in organizational behavior is the concept of “flow” proposed by Csikszentmihalyi (1990). Csikszentmihalyi defines follow as “the overall feeling that people feel when they act intensively (Page 36). In this state, there is almost no difference between self and environment. They have lost consciousness of their “self”. They are integrated with the activity itself. For Csikszentmihalyi, individuals in the mobile experience do not need external rewards or goals to motivate them, because the activity itself can show constant challenges.
For example, in addition to Kahn (1990)’s definition of cognitive, emotional, and physical dimensions, Maslach and Leiter (1997) describe participation as the opposite of burnout, and its components include energy, participation, and efficacy. The statement of Saufili and Bakker (2004) includes elements labeled vitality, dedication, and absorption. Vitality refers to the spirit of being full of energy and mental toughness at work, willing to devote energy to work, and perseverance even when encountering difficulties. Dedication is important in work, passion, inspiration, pride and challenge. Absorption means full concentration, happiness, and full concentration on work, so that time pass