Kapferer (2008) states that “in terms of brand management, identity precedes image”.
Explain what Kapferer means by this statement.
Discuss how contemporary brand managers attempt to build compelling, differentiated brand images using multiple stakeholder touchpoints. Illustrate with specific examples of brands throughout.
The study of brands and brand management has historically attracted a great deal of interest among practitioners and academics. Early, seminal research on brands includes the studies by Gardner and Levy (1955), Levy (1959), Martineau (1959) and Allison and Uhl (1964). Since then, the number of brand related journal articles and of brand management books have increased exponentially, particularly in the last 20 years. Two academic Journals (the Journal of Brand Management and the Journal of Product and Brand Management) are entirely devoted to the study of brands. In addition, a number of special issues have focused on specific topics in branding, for instance the Journal of Business and Industrial Marketing (2007) Special Issue on Branding in Industrial Markets, the European Journal of Marketing (2003) Special Issue on Corporate and Service Brands and the Journal of Marketing (1994) Special Issue on Brand Management. Moreover, most marketing and consumer behaviour conferences include a „branding‟ or „brand management‟ track. There are also frequent specialist conferences (e.g. the annual „Thought Leaders International Conference on Brand Management‟) and a number of Special Interest Groups (e.g. the Academy of Marketing‟s Brand Identity and Corporate Reputation Special Interest Group)