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The industrial revolution has brought up significant changes over the past two centuries. As labelled by McNeill (2000), “the peculiar 20th century” brought qualitative and also quantitative environmental changes such as deforestation, air and water pollution etc,. Historically, mankind looks into nature more and more in a scientific way and mainly uses science for its exploitation. This period has been called a time of “modern society). More over, Dobson (2003, p. 10) provides complex view and explains that interconnectedness of global interactions and processes speed up the world-wide system of communication and transport as well as the diffusion of information. These flows of activities, trade, finance, culture in social and political spectrums across regions and continents is commonly characterized as globalisation.
The long-term trajectories of economic growth and population growth are closely linked and following each other. Economic growth is the main trigger of economic activities such as using energy and technologies and this, in fact, crosses environmental limits of the Earth and turns into a devastating unsustainable process.
According DeFries the disrespect to biophysical limits of the Earth following the industrial-revolution period brought humankind to a critical point. Therefore, global society needs to move beyond this poi