the Lean method focuses on fine-tuning the efficiency of the process to produce products and services as quickly and cheaply as possible . Hence, the Lean method requires various operational changes, and employees must operate in self-directed teams, solving problems themselves. This can cause misalignment with management directions. Also, it focuses on continuous improvement and results, and required changes may not be adopted by the employees, due to lack of direction and understanding . The employees may resist Lean management practices if they involve various changes in their work practice . Hence, the leaders and managers must be transparent regarding all changes and allow for inquiries from employees to enable them to adapt. The solution is to systematically integrate Lean into the company culture, provide thorough and timely training and establish clear guidelines and targets.
The concept of waste represents anything that delivers no value to the organisation and its stakeholders; but this is open to interpretation. The goal of eliminating waste is a process of value creation, and the organisation continuously improves so that the end-to-end value stream is continuously optimised to create more value for the organisation and stakeholders. The organisation can gain valuable insight into how to improve process efficiency by examining success, failure and satisfaction rates, using feedback-loop mechanisms. The business’s agility can improve through the process of creating value, eliminating waste and implementing continuous-improvement cycles.
The Lean-methodology-based leadership encourages the team towards continuous learning, testing and improvement of each process that the team must involve in an integrative process. The manufacturing industry has used the Lean methodology successfully for many years, and its modern application to business is constantly evolving across various industries [33-35]. In large