Processing Information and Identifying Issues
Mr. George is a known case of Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) and T2DM. The condition of kidney characterised by decreased renal function, damaged kidney overtime irrespective of a diagnosis of the disease or an underlying condition is CKD. It is classified into 5 stages and the person can have changes during the first four phases, however, when they are in final phase, the function of renal is irreversible. According to Australian Institute of Health and Welfare (AIHW), the death rate related to CKD among indigenous Australian in 2015-2017 was 1500 accounting for 74 per 100,000 people (2019).
CKD is accompanied by the decline in kidney function with age and is associated with comorbidities such as hypertension, diabetes, acute renal condition and obesity. The modifiable risk factors contributing to CKD include smoking, hypertension, obesity, altered glucose regulation, physical inactivity, poor nutrition (Hasegawa, Sakamaki, Koiwa, Akizawa & Hishida, 2018). Whilst, the non-modifiable risk factors include increasing age, past renal injury or diseases, genetic, history in the family, male and low birth weight (Kassem & Jaar, 2019). CKD is asymptomatic most of the time, but some symptoms like itchiness, loss of appetite, lethargy, difficulty in mobility, shortness of breath can be found in certain people. CKD is diagnosed by blood investigation for GFR and urine dips