Evaluate and apply a range of project scope, cost and time management planning techniques and practices to address the needs of complex project briefs, including global, paying particular attention to issues impacting project outcomes. 2. Present and justify budgetary and planning outcomes to a globally diverse range of stakeholders who represent competing interests in order to obtain agreement and commitment to action. 3. Apply quality management planning tools and techniques to achieve expected project outcomes
The origins of complexity theory applied to project management can be traced back to the works by Morris [1, 2], Bennet and Fine , Bubshait and Selen , Bennet and Cropper , Gidado , Wozniak , and Baccarini . All these works highlight the importance of complexity in project contexts in general and in particular its effects on project goals and objectives, project organization form and arrangement, and in the experience requirements for the management personnel.
The importance of complexity to the project management process is widely acknowledged for several reasons [1–8]: (i) it influences project planning, coordination, and control; (ii) it hinders the clear identification of goals and objectives of major projects; (iii) it can affect the selection of an appropriate project organization form and experience requirements of management personnel; (iv) it can be used as criteria in the selection of a suitable project management arrangement; and (v) it can affect different project outcomes (time, cost, quality, safety, etc.).
An understanding of project complexity and how it might be managed is of significant importance for project managers because of the differences associated with decision-making and goal attainment that appear to be related to complexity [8, 9]. As projects have become more and more complex, there has been an increasing concern about the concept of project complexity and the application of traditional tools and techniques developed for simple projects has been found to be inappropriate for complex projects [1, 8]. According to Parsons-Hann and Liu , it is evident that complexity contributes to project failure in organizations; what is not clear is to what degree this statement holds true. Identifying and characterizing different aspects of project complexity in order to understand more efficiently the stakes of project management complexity can be of great support in assisting the global project management community.