Subsequently, since heating and electricity operations are highly important in the residential sector, diverse strategies have been proposed over the years to both reduce the level of greenhouse gas emissions from buildings and to ensure high energy efficiency. Baek and Lee (2019) observe that a core solution in this regard involves the development of high-performance buildings that utilize renewable energy systems (RES) and related technologies. The US Department of Energy reports similar findings, revealing that technologies such as small solar electric systems, electric wind systems, micro-hydropower systems, and hybrid solar and wind systems are some of the common solutions that can be utilized in the US to reduce existing electricity use.
In the same vein, Şerban et al. (2016) also report that solar water heating systems can provide substantial heat energy used within residential buildings and as a result, reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions. Enteria et al. (2015) further add that installing photovoltaic solar panels on the rooftop of residential buildings that are linked to biomass heaters can also support the hot water requirements. Nevertheless, in the Massachusetts region, six main renewable technologies are utilized by state agencies: cold-climate air-source heat pumps (ccASHP), ground-source heat pumps (GSHP), biomass thermal (BM), solar thermal (ST), biofuels (BF) and biogas (BG)