In the limited research on employee engagement, Kahn (1990) found in his research on the psychological conditions of personal participation and disengagement at work that there are three psychological conditions related to participation or disengagement at work: meaning, safety and Availability. In the study of empirically testing the Kahn (1990) model, May et al. (2004) found that significance, safety and availability are significantly related to participation. They also found that job fulfillment and role fit are meaningful positive predictors. Rewarding colleagues and supporting supervisor relationships are positive predictors of safety, while compliance with colleagues’ norms and self-awareness are negative predictors. Available resources are a positive predictor of psychological availability, while participation in external activities is a negative predictor.
The second model of engagement comes from the burnout literature, which describes job engagement as the opposite of burnout and points out that burnout involves the erosion of work. Do your own job (Maslach et al., 2001). Maslach et al. assumed in their so-called structural model that the existence of specific needs (i.e. work load and personal conflict) and the lack of specific resources (i.e. control response, social support, autonomy and decision-making participation) foreshadow burnout, which will lead to various Negative results, such as physical illness, turnover, absenteeism and reduced organizational commitments. Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner, and Schaufeli