are right to say democratic principles of Athens characterized the need for all individuals in the polis. However, it is unfortunate that such democratic principles did not extend to women as they were considered second-class citizens. Like for the case of many modern democracies around the world, the motivations that these governmental systems had in excluding some individuals such as women from participation was to uphold control and power and to serve the interests of those in government.
As you have stated, it is evident that the wealthy elites and their control over the society often lead to unrest and civil uprisings thus a question of exercise of power and its impacts on the society as well as the interests involved. For instance, the Roman Republic denied a larger percentage of the population’s political participation by limiting direct involvement in political activities. The Republic was a government for the elite due to the cultural hegemony of the Roman ruling class.