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1. The European Union is often accused of being ‘undemocratic’. Critically analyze this statement with reference to the composition of European institutions and their interaction in decision-making.
2. Analyze the role of the European Council in policy-making in the European Union with reference to the economic or migration crises.
3. Following the May 2019 elections, 11 Irish MEPs took their seats in the European Parliament. After the withdrawal of the UK from the EU on 31 January 2020, Ireland gained an additional two seats. Compare the role of an MEP with that of a TD with regards to their budgetary, supervisory, and legislative powers.
4. Compare the appointment procedure of the President of the European Commission and the College of Commissioners before and after the Lisbon Treaty. Discuss whether this revised procedure has addressed the lack of democracy in the selection process of the Commission.