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experiments of Yahui et al. (2017) and Tingting et al. (2016) were not similar to the techniques used in this project, there were similarities among the two methodologies because they both used near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to analysing the samples of goji berry. Yahui et al. (2017) collected ripe fruits from different regions and provided supersonic conditions to facilitate the extraction of anthocyanin. From here, ultraviolet-visible spectrometry technique was applied to determine the total content of anthocyanin in the goji extracts. As a way of improving the validity of the results, a buffer solution of potassium chloride-hydrochloric acid as added at intervals to the extract. In the NIR spectra analysis, the researchers used Antaris II near-infrared spectrophotometer with abilities of 32 scans and range of between 1/10,000cm and 1/4000cm. Clearly, it can be seen that the methodology used here is different from the standard procedures of Folin-Ciocalteu used in other experiments. Nonetheless, Tingting et al. (2016) used instrumentations and methodologies similar to Yahui et al. (2017) by incorporating NIR spectroscopy and chemometrics. In this case, sample preparation was initiated by collecting variety of goji berries from different regions, a similar procedure performed by Yahui et al. (2017). The experiment also involved the use of sensory evaluations to determine the differences in smell and taste of the goji berries (Tingting et al. 2016). This is a unique experience that was not observed in the other methodologies. Tingting et al. (2016) then proceeded to analyse the total flavonoid content of the extracts by testing centrifuged sample via ultraviolet-visible spectrometry.